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Buying Guide: Recording Gear

Recording Buying Guide


Table of Contents


Recording applications


Choosing a recorder








Signal processors and effects


Needful things


Glossary of recording Terms


So you're looking for a piece of recording gear or maybe an entire recording setup, but having trouble pulling the trigger? This thumbnail guide will give you insight into the basic equipment and terminology of recording music to help you make that decision. The key to choosing the gear that's right for you is to simply focus on the types of projects you have planned and select the equipment that has the features you need.


There are certain pieces of gear that every musician interested in recording will need, and we'll identify them. The first thing you'll need, obviously, is something to record the music you make. And you'll need a way to listen to the audio you've recorded to make sure it sounds the way you want. Finally, you'll need a way to share the music you've made.


If you need some information on recording from the basics to advanced topics, the many helpful books and videos on recording that we sell are a great place to start.


Courtesy of M-Audio
Courtesy of M-Audio
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What types of recordings do you have planned?


Let's start by breaking down the types of equipment you'll need based on what types of music you'll be working on. Keep this question in mind as you read and think about gear: What features do I need based on the types of recordings I want to make?



1. Recording solo or duo performances.


Small Studio


If you're working on a small solo- or duo-based project, this is what you'll need in your setup. Whether you choose to use a computer-based recording system or a standalone multitrack recorder, you'll need two-to-four tracks of simultaneous recording capability, at least one microphone, and headphones and/or studio monitors for playback and overdubbing, as well the proper cables and I/O for connecting your gear, and a mic stand or two. You'll need enough inputs for vocals and a guitar or your microphone and a keyboard or sampler. Your computer recording software or multitrack recorder may have effects built-in, but you may also want an external signal processor. There will also be some recording-related accessories such as direct boxes that you'll want to acquire as you discover more about what you need.


2. Recording bands.


Medium Studio


For recording a band demo you'll want 4-16 channels of simultaneous recording; MIDI I/O; a selection of various microphones; studio monitors and headphones for playback and overdubbing; lots of appropriate cables and connections for hooking it all up; some mic stands; and a dedicated mic preamp, compressor, or recording channel or two to use on vocals and solo instruments, especially acoustic instruments. This should be enough to record the entire band depending on how many mics and inputs you use for the various instruments. You may need a mixer with 12 channels or more and a couple of buses, depending on the inputs and mixing capabilities of your audio interface or recorder. You may also want some extra processing power like dedicated computer software effects or an external signal processor or two. There will also be some recording-related accessories you should consider such as direct boxes, pop filters, studio foam, monitor stands, racks, and recording furniture to help keep things in order.


3. Recording multiple large projects.


If you've got a space set up specifically for recording and you're working on large, professional-level projects, you should only be considering a computer-based or standalone DAW that delivers 16 tracks or more of simultaneous recording. Pro-level project studios should also have a several pairs of monitors and a selection of headphones available for critical listening. You'll also need a varied collection of microphones from simple dynamic mics to ribbon and condenser types to cover most instruments or situations. An array of signal processors like microphone preamps, compressors, limiters, recording channels, equalizers, and effects processors will also be very useful. You'll also want to consider purchasing a high-quality, large recording mixer with 24 channels or more and at least four or more buses and mix groups in addition to the main outs. Proper use of acoustic foam will help you eliminate unwanted echoes and resonances inside the studio and keep more noise out of your recordings. Accessories like monitor stands, monitor isolation pads, multichannel headphone amplifiers, direct boxes, pop filters, studio foam, racks, and recording furniture help keep things in order.


Choosing a Recorder




Main Features — Pay attention to how many tracks you get; audio, MIDI, actual, and virtual as well as how many you can record and play back simultaneously. All but the most basic multitrackers should give you some editing and mixing features you can use to polish your music.


I/O — Also of principal concern should be the number and type of I/O: Balanced, unbalanced, phantom powered, XLR, 1/4", TRS, MIDI, Hi-Z, surround sound, RCA, S/PDIF, word clock, ADAT, and AES/EBU to connect your gear, and USB or FireWire for computer connectivity, if needed.


Audio Quality — Make sure you check the specs for sampling frequency and bit rate, handled by the analog-to-digital converter. Generally speaking, the higher the number, the higher the audio quality, with 16-bit/44.1kHz being the standard for CDs. Higher sampling frequencies offer more headroom and high-frequency response in digital recordings, important audio factors for professional recordings.


Controls — Examine the mixer section to see what type and quality of controls it gives you, such as meters, faders, knobs, EQ, and sends. If it doesn't have a mixer section, you'll need to buy a mixer.


Storage — Multitrackers record internally to either flash memory or a hard drive, and some will let you record to an external storage device or replace the storage with a bigger storage device. Multitrack audio can take up a lot of disco storage, so keep that in mind.


Extras — Some of the extras that can make recording easier are things like an internal MIDI sequencer and sound module, a built-in effects processor, a separate mastering section, and an onboard CD burner. You should also give some thought to how intuitively it is laid out and how easy it is to use.


Choosing a Computer Audio Interface


Main Features — The most important feature to consider when looking at a computer audio interface is if it will work with the computer you have. Check two things: how it connects to your computer and the manufacturer's system requirements for the interface. The main connection types are PCI, USB, FireWire, and PCMCIA or PC Card. Review the processor, memory, and connection requirements to confirm compatibility with your computer.




PCI SoundcardUSB InterfaceFireWire InterfacePCMCIA/PC card
PCI SoundcardUSB InterfaceFireWire InterfacePCMCIA/PC card


I/O — Also of principal concern should be the number and type of audio I/O: Balanced, unbalanced, phantom powered, XLR, 1/4", TRS, MIDI, Hi-Z, surround sound, RCA, S/PDIF, word clock, ADAT, and AES/EBU. Pay attention to how many channels of audio it will record and playback simultaneously.


Controls — Some computer interfaces include hardware controls, some have software controls, and some have both. Often they also include mixer software to handle routing of the I/O and level meters.


Audio Quality — Check the specs for sampling frequency and bit rate, handled by the analog-to-digital converter. Generally speaking, the higher the number, the higher the audio quality, with 16-bit/44.1kHz being the standard for CDs. Higher sampling frequencies offer more headroom and high-frequency response in digital recordings, important audio factors for professional recordings.


Latency — All computer audio interfaces have some latency, but very good ones have so little you don't notice it. Most good computer audio interfaces will provide a way of measuring and controlling latency. Some provide a work around, such as hardware signal monitoring. An interface with too much latency makes it nearly impossible to perform normal multitrack operations like overdubbing or realtime monitoring. A slower computer will contribute to latency.


Software — Almost all manufacturers throw in software with their interfaces for tracking and sequencing, effects, or virtual instruments that help you make music on your computer. Make sure your computer meets the requirements for the software as well, since that is where most of your work will get done once you're done tracking. At the bare minimum you will need recording software to record, edit, and mix your music. Some recording software offers standard multitracking capabilities, some use a loop-based system, and some do both. Software-based effects and instruments offer the functionality of hardware on your computer.


Choosing Microphones


To get your music into your recording setup you'll need at least one good microphone, and probably several. The main types to consider are condenser, dynamic, and ribbon microphones. Each type has different sound characteristics and is used for recording in different situations. For more details on this, see our microphone buying guide here.


Choosing Monitors


Studio Monitors


Main Features — Studio monitors are critical to good recordings. Intended to provide you with an accurate picture of the audio you are recording, overdubbing, mixing, editing, and mastering, they are your first defense against bad sound. Most monitors used for recording today in homes and studios are near-field monitors. When considering monitors, look at the frequency response and THD specs to get an idea of the monitor's accuracy. Tweeter and main driver size will also effect how accurately a speaker can reproduce audio, since larger drivers can reproduce low frequencies more naturally. If you record beat- and bass-heavy music or TV and movie soundtrack material, a subwoofer or surround setup will be helpful in monitoring the extended low-frequencies and extra channels necessary in those types of music.


I/O — For connections, monitors usually have 1/4”, XLR, RCA, and S/PDIF jacks. Some offer only unbalanced or balanced I/O, and some have both.


Active/passive — Active monitors come with their own power amplifier and controls built into the cabinet and are often biamplified. Active monitors work well because you don't need a separate power amp and the amp is matched to the speaker by the manufacturer. Biamplification helps each speaker driver (woofer and tweeter) to work within its frequency range for optimal performance. Passive monitors use a separate, external power amp, which gives you some flexibility in choosing your components and setting up multi-speaker arrays. Passive monitors usually have high-quality crossover circuitry for extremely accurate splitting of high and low frequencies.


Extras — Advanced features on monitors include EQ controls, acoustic space compensation effects, balance controls, and filters.


Choosing Headphones




Main Features — Headphones are generally used for monitoring during tracking and overdubbing, but especially high-quality designs can be used for nearly everything, including critical listening. When considering headphones, look at the frequency response and THD specs to get an idea of their accuracy. Driver size will also effect how accurately a speaker can reproduce audio, since larger drivers can reproduce low frequencies more naturally.


I/O — Headphones use either an 1/8” jack or a stereo 1/4” jack, and usually include an adapter for convenience when plugging into equipment that has one, but not the other.


Extras — Some headphones may have noise reduction features, EQ, a detachable cable, or operate wirelessly. None of these features are necessary for monitoring recorded material.


Choosing Effects/Signal Processors


Main Features — Signal processors include everything from units that produce a single effect to multi-effect processors that produce thousands. Certain types of signal processors, such a compressor, preamp, EQ, noise gates, and limiters serve one single dedicated purpose, with varying amounts of quality and control. Others such as reverbs, delays, and enhancers/exciters may produce a single effect but with many variations. Multi-effect processors include many different effects as well as variations of those effects. The main feature to consider when choosing a signal processor is if it produces the type of sound you want, and if you like that sound.


Signal Processor


I/O — Most signal processors offer 1/4”, TRS, or XLR connections, although some also have RCA, S/PDIF, ADAT, word clock, and AES/EBU.


Hardware/Software — Effects processors can be either hardware or software. Hardware processors come in desktop, rackmount, and pedalboard-type units, with rackmount being the most common. Software effects are installed on your computer like any other software program and can be used on audio recorded into your computer.


Audio Quality — Check the specs for sampling frequency and bit rate, handled by the analog-to-digital converter. Generally speaking, the higher the number, the higher the audio quality, with 16-bit/44.1kHz being the standard for CDs. Higher sampling frequencies offer more headroom and high-frequency response in digital recordings, important audio factors for professional recordings. Some signal processors will have specs listed for frequency response and THD that will give you an idea of how transparently they will handle your audio.


Controls — Look at how much control the processor gives you over its processing abilities. Not just the number of knobs, but the amount of control each knob or fader gives you over the effect parameters. Units that give you more control also give you more flexibility for dialing in sounds you like.


Choosing Accessories


Some accessories are really neccessories, and some simply make recording a little easier. You might need monitor stands, a recording desk, a patchbay, acoustic foam, a power conditioner, or a rack for your processors. You will definitely need cables, mic stands, recording media, and extra storage for recorded digital audio.


PatchbayMonitor StandsAcoustic FoamDirect Box
PatchbayMonitor StandsAcoustic FoamDirect Box


You can buy all the equipment you'll need to have a great recording setup right here on our website. We carry cassette recorders, multitrack recorders, computer audio interfaces, computer hardware, computer software, microphones, preamps, signal processors, mixers, headphones, and monitors from great brands like TASCAM, Fostex, Roland, Yamaha, Korg, Presonus, Digidesign, M-Audio, E-MU, MOTU, Behringer, Cakewalk, Alesis, Apple, Steinberg, Sony, BIAS, Event, JBL, Mackie, AKG, Shure, RøDE, MXL, Audio-Technica, TC Helicon, ART, Avalon, Lexicon, Universal Audio, and Allen & Heath.


You'll also find lots of exclusive Product Reviews, customer reviews, Tech Tips, and other articles that will help guide you in selecting the right gear



Glossary of Recording Terms


1/4" jack -- Also known as phone plug. Unbalanced connection using a phone-patching cord connector. The most basic connection in audio.


1/8" jack -- Also known as mini stereo. Essentially the same as a 1/4" jack, only 1/8" in diameter.


5.1 surround sound -- see surround sound.


7.1 surround sound -- see surround sound.


A/D converter -- A circuit that converts an audio signal from analog to digital. Short for analog-to-digital converter.


AAC or Advanced Audio Codec -- A format of compressed audio with better sound quality than MP3 uses less memory and less bandwidth than MP3.


AC-3 -- An audio encoding format similar to Dolby Digital that reproduces surround sound effects on two channels.


Acoustic foam -- The same as studio foam. Foam is used in recording studios to reshape the natural acoustics of the room to be better suited for recording and critical listening. Can also be used to dampen loud noises.


ADAT -- Acronym for Alesis Digital Audio Tape. Originally referred to a specific Alesis product that recorded eight tracks of digital audio on SVHS tape, but now also refers to the optical connection that transfers eight tracks of audio simultaneously. It uses an optical transfer method called Light Pipe.


AES -- Audio Engineering Society.


AES/EBU -- An interface format for digital signals developed by the AES and EBU in the early 1980s. Typically uses AES Type I cabling, which is a three-conductor, 110-ohm cable with XLR connections.


AIFF -- Stands for Audio Interchange File Format, a Mac Operating System standard for uncompressed digital audio.


Amplitude -- The strength of an audio signal, measured in dB, at a given point in time.


Analog -- A representation of audio using voltage changes to produce a continually variable waveform. Accuracy is limited only by the quality of the physical measurements fed to it and its playback equipment.


Analog-to-digital converter -- A circuit that converts an audio signal from analog to digital. Also called A/D converter.


ASIO -- Audio Stream Input/Output. Developed by Steinberg as an audio driver specification that operates on Macintosh and Windows operating systems. ASIO offers very low latency.


Assign -- To route an audio signal to one or more selected channels.


ATRAC -- Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding. A proprietary Sony file format used for MiniDisc. ATRAC reduces the amount of storage needed for audio by 5:1 by omitting audio below a certain threshold level.


Attack -- The initial part of a note that occurs from the beginning of the waveform until the signal reaches maximum volume.


Audio Interface -- See Computer Audio Interface.


Audio resolution -- Refers to the overall quality of audio handling by a piece of equipment. Often used as a specification for A/D converters and the internal circuitry of digital audio components.


Automated Mixing -- A computerized system for mixing boards that stores mixer settings and entire mixing sequences. Settings and sequences can then be recalled on command.


Auxiliary Bus or Aux Bus -- A bus dedicated to transmitting audio signals separately from the main bus. See also Bus.


Auxiliary Send or Aux Send -- Control on an input channel which governs the amount of signal sent to the Aux Bus.


Balanced -- An audio circuit with two shielded conductors running at reverse polarity and equal at ground. Balanced wiring provides noise-free transfer of audio in areas susceptible to noise, like recording studios and live sound venues. Requires balanced I/O and balanced cables.


Bass Management -- A crossover system developed for speaker arrays with a dedicated subwoofer. Used for 5.1 and surround sound systems and recording/mixing.


Bass Trap -- An acoustic device that absorbs rampant low frequencies.


Biamplification or Biamped -- The practice of using separate power amplifiers to drive separate elements in a loudspeaker cabinet. Often combined with active amplification, where the amplifier is built into the cabinet of the speaker.


Bit Depth -- The number of bits captured in one sample, or slice, of an audio signal as it is converted from analog to digital by an A/D converter. Measured in bits and represented as 16-bit, 24-bit, 32-bit, 48-bit, etc.


Bit Rate -- The rate at which bits appear in a bit stream. In digital audio bit rate equals the sampling rate (measured in kHz) multiplied by the number of bits per sample. A higher bit rate represents more audio being converted from analog to digital.


Board -- Slang for mixing console.


Bouncing -- On a multitrack recording, refers to the practice of mixing two or more tracks together and recording the mix on an unused track. This allows the original tracks to be erased or recorded over for more recording space.


Breakout box -- A chassis containing the I/O portion of a computer audio interface. Typically connected by a single cord to the computer through a sound card, USB port, or FireWire port.


Bus -- An electrical conductor that transmits audio signals from one or more sources to one or more other sources. Typically used for the routing of audio signals in a mixer.


CD -- Abbreviation for Compact Disc. High-density digital storage medium typically used to deliver finished audio. 5" disc stores up to 74 minutes of audio, or 650MB of data as a CD-ROM. Co-developed by Sony and Philips. See also CD-ROM, CDR, or CD/RW.


CD burner -- Slang term for a CDR or CDR/W drive capable of writing data to a CD.


CD drive -- Also CD-ROM, CDR drive, CD/RW drive. A disc drive that reads CDs. Called a CD drive when connected to an audio system, or CD-ROM drive when connected to a computer. A CD drive able to write on a CDR is called a CDR drive. A drive able to both read and write is called a CDR/W drive.


CD-ROM -- Medium for computer data storage. 5" disc typically used for delivery of computer applications and information. See also CD, CDR, or CD/RW.


CDR -- Short for CD-Recordable. A CD that can be recorded on with a CDR drive. See also CD, CD-ROM, or CD/RW.


CD/RW -- Short for CD-ReWritable. A CD that can be recorded on with a CD/RW drive. See also CD, CD-ROM, or CDR.


Channel -- A single path of audio through a mixer, processor array, recording channel, or computer interface.


Channel strip -- See recording channel.


Chorus -- The main portion of a song that is repeated several times throughout the song with the same lyrics. Also a special effect which combines a signal with a delayed, often filtered version of the signal to create a wavy or shimmering effect.


Clean -- Pure, unaffected audio. Also free of any type of interference, noise, or distortion.


Clear -- Audio that is easy to hear. Uncluttered, unmuffled, with sufficient high, mid, and low frequency content.


Compression -- A reduction in gain or dynamic range of a signal by a compressor. Compression can be used to even out an erratic signal, fatten up sounds, extend sustain of a guitar, sweeten vocals, or push certain sounds forward in the mix of a song by increasing the overall level. See also compressor, data compression.


Compressor -- A unit which applies compression to an audio signal, usually with controls for sculpting exactly how, and how much, compression is applied to the signal.


Computer audio interface -- Any piece of equipment that allows a computer to import audio. Usually refers to soundcards and breakout boxes or variations of them.


Computer connectivity -- In audio, the ability of a device to connect to a computer for digital audio transfer.


Computer-based recording -- See also DAW. A multitrack recording system based around a computer. Usually with editing capabilities.


Data compression -- An encoding scheme to reduce the size of a music file. Popular formats include AAC, MP3, Quicktime, WMA, and AIFF.


DAW -- Acronym for Digital Audio Workstation. Term usually refers to a computer-based system of digitally recording and editing audio.


Delay -- A signal processor that momentarily stores a signal, or section of a signal, for a preset period of time before repetitively releasing it, also for a preset period of time. It also refers to the interval between the original signal and its repeat. Delay is the mother of other time-based effects such as chorus and flangers.


Direct box -- Any device designed specifically to buffer or isolate Hi-Z guitar and bass signals so they can be inserted directly into a recording channel, mixer, recorder, or computer audio interface without amplification. Direct boxes can be passive or active, and some offer multiple inputs and outputs for conveniently connecting more than one instrument at a time.


DSP -- Stands for Digital Signal Processing. Refers to digital processing circuitry optimized for handling audio. This circuitry performs rapid-fire mathematical calculations to analyze audio signals and modify them. DSP circuits can also provide extra-processing power to DAWs.


DVD -- Abbreviation for Digital Versatile Disc, formerly known as Digital Video Disc. High-density digital storage medium capable of holding data formatted for computers, video, and audio. See also DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD/RW.


DVD-ROM -- High-density medium for computer data storage. 5" disc typically used for high-volume delivery of computer applications and information. See also DVD, DVD-R, or DVD/RW.


DVD-R -- Short for DVD-Recordable. A DVD that can be recorded on with a DVD-R drive. See also DVD, DVD-ROM, or DVD/RW.


DVD/RW -- Short for DVD-ReWritable. A DVD that can be recorded on with a DVD/RW drive. See also DVD, DVD-ROM, or DVD-R.


EBU -- European Broadcast Union.


Editing -- The arranging, rearranging, modifying, or assembling of recorded audio.


Effects processor -- A software or hardware device dedicated to providing sound and audio modification through the use of effects. Effects processors may provide a single effect, like delay, or deliver an array of effects such as delay, reverb, chorus, flanger, compression, EQ, filters, etc.


Enhancer -- Also called an exciter. A signal processor which uses frequency analysis, compression, EQ, and filters to add sparkle to audio. Used frequently to bring certain aspects of a song forward in the mix, especially during mastering.


EQ -- Short for equalization. Usually refers to a circuit that gives control over specific frequencies or a set of frequencies within an audio signal which passes through it. Can be used to shape sounds to be more desirable, or remove undesirable sounds within an audio signal.


Exciter -- See enhancer.


Fader -- A sliding lever with similar functions as knob-based controls. Provides a smoother response, more fine-tuned control, and visual feedback for quickly determining level.


Filter -- An audio circuit which reduces the level of frequencies outside a preset range.


FireWire -- Also known as IEEE 1394. A high-speed, stable serial-bus protocol for transfer of data between digital devices with standardized hardware connections. It also allows daisy-chaining multiple devices (up to 63) on one bus. In audio applications FireWire can be used to connect an audio peripheral to a computer for digital audio purposes. FireWire can be used for either MIDI or audio data, and its rapid bus speed eliminates concerns with latency. There are two versions--the older FireWire 400 and the even faster FireWire 800. FireWire 400 transmits data at 400 megabits a second. FireWire 800, or IEEE 1394b, transmits data at 800 megabits per second.


Flanger -- An effect which replicates and splits a signal then recombines it with the replica signal delayed to create a swooshing, hollow-sounding, jet-plane effect.


Flash memory -- A type of memory storage that retains its data after the power is removed. Like RAM and ROM flash memory has no moving parts but offers large storage capacity like a hard drive.


Frequency range -- The set of frequencies a piece of audio gear is stated to handle. Usually specified as 20Hz-20kHz. When combined with THD it gives you some idea of the accuracy of the component.


Frequency response -- The result of frequency range versus amplitude this specification usually speaks to the accuracy of the equipment it refers to. The spec (20Hz-20kHz ±3dB) means that for a given input signal the listed range of frequencies (20Hz-20khz) will produce output within the specified range of levels (±3dB). Any frequencies outside this range may or may not be within the range of levels. A wide and flat frequency response will give you a more accurate impression of how your audio really sounds.


Hard drive -- Primary storage device for modern computers utilizing a hard disk with attached read, write, edit, and stabilizing controls. Hard drives operate internally on an IDE or SCSI bus, and externally on a SCSI, FireWire, or USB bus. Capacity is normally measured in gigabytes (GB). For use with a DAW, specs for access/read/write speed, cache, and noise should be examined.


Headphones -- A pair of drivers designed to be worn on the head for monitoring audio material. Headphones come in closed, open, and semi-open designs. Closed headphones seal the ear off from outside noise for ultimate isolation and are ideal for monitoring during performances and playback. Open headphones sit on the outside of the ear but don't seal it from exterior noises or the acoustics of the room. Semi-open headphones are a design thought to successfully combine open and closed designs. They seal the ear, but usually have a semi-open ear cup which allows the audio to interact with the acoustics of the room more naturally while still providing some isolation.


Hi-Z -- Short for high impedance. Z is a popular abbreviation for impedance; hi is simply a shortened version of high. Usually refers to a 1/4" line input with high impedance, typically several thousand ohms or more. Usually provided as an input on a mixer, multitrack, or computer audio interface for a guitar or bass.


I/O -- Short for input/output.


IDE -- Abbreviation for Integrated Drive Electronics. A computer connection standard used for hard drives, CD drives, and other peripherals. IDE offers stable, reliable performance at a low price.


IEEE -- Acronym for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Usually pronounced "I-triple-E."


Impedance -- The resistance of a circuit to the flow of alternating current, measured in ohms. In audio, impedance is typically classified as low or high. Z is short for impedance.


Latency -- Usually refers to the amount of delay between the moment a signal is fed into an audio interface and the computer processes it and plays it back. MIDI instruments can have latency between the command being sent to when it is played. Hard drives can have latency between the time the read/write mechanism is commanded to retrieve data and when it relays it.


Light Pipe -- Another word for optical ADAT connection or cable. See ADAT.


Limiter -- A signal processor that controls the dynamics of an audio signal. A limiter establishes an absolute output level threshold and prevents any signal that enters from breaking that threshold. Works similarly to a compressor.


Loop-based -- Term usually refers to a sequencer or audio multitrack software that operates by looping a specified sound or group of sounds over and over, instead of linear tracking audio as a standard multitrack. Usually used as a quick and easy way to build rhythm tracks for songs, loops are also used to produce audio for dance music, hip-hop, experimental electronic music, etc.


Mastering -- A process in which the final recording of an audio performance is mixed and processed for distribution. This usually involves using limiting, compression, EQ, normalization, stereo imaging, and editing to achieve a professional and consistent sound aimed for modern radio and quality playback equipment.


Meter -- A device used to give visual feedback on the level of an audio signal. The more precise the meter, the more valuable the feedback.


Microphone preamp -- The stage of an audio input channel which boosts the mic signal to line level. Mic preamps can be standalone units or integrated as part of a mixer, channel strip, audio interface, or recorder.


MIDI -- Acronym stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A protocol that allows electronic instruments and peripheral devices to communicate. It transmits every aspect of a musical performance except audio.


MIDI channel -- Channel for sending and receiving MIDI signals. Sixteen MIDI channels can be sent over a single MIDI cable.


MIDI interface -- Computer interface for sending and/or receiving MIDI data.


MIDI port -- Special five-pin jack used to send or receive MIDI data. MIDI cable required.


MIDI sound module -- Also known as tone generator. See sound module.


Mixing -- The process of using a mixer, either hardware or software, to adjust levels and EQ of an audio performance or recorded audio in an effort to pleasingly enhance the audio.


Modulation -- A manipulation of audio where a control signal is used to affect the frequency, amplitude, waveform, pitch, or level of another signal. A principal foundation of synthesis.


Monitor -- Also studio monitor. A speaker specially designed for high-fidelity playback of audio material for critical listening during the recording process. Varieties include near-field, surround, active, and passive. Near-field monitors are designed to be used in very close proximity to the listener to limit interference from the room acoustics. Surround monitoring arrays use all the normal speakers included in a typical 5.1 setup. Active monitors have built-in power amps that eliminate the need for a traditional amplifier. Passive monitors are traditional speakers which require an external power amplifier.


Multitrack recorder -- A recording unit that will record more than two or more tracks. Also multitrack or multitracker for short. Using a multitracker is often called tracking.


Noise -- Undesirable or unwanted sound that is introduced to an audio signal by other electronic equipment or excessive gain. Includes hum, hiss, and interference.


Noise gate -- An electronic device used to reduce or eliminate noise that can occur in silent or quiet passages of a music performance.


Normalization -- A function of DSP (Digital Signal Processing) gear which analyzes an audio signal, determines its loudest section, brings it to the level just before distortion, and then raises the rest of the audio signal an equal amount so the entire audio signal is louder.


Overdubbing -- Recording new audio over, alongside, or in previously recorded audio to combine the two parts into something new. Usually involves playback of the already-recorded audio to record the new parts in the right place, but with computer-based recording, this isn't always necessary.


Patchbay -- A device with numerous I/O connections for interconnecting multiple pieces of audio equipment in a central, convenient spot. Usually these come in rackmount form with various types of I/O available.


PCI -- Stands for Peripheral Component Interface. PCI expansion slots on computer motherboards allow processor-exclusive attachment of high-speed peripherals. PCI can be specified as a 32- or 64-bit bus capable of 132 megabytes per second data transfer at a bus clock speed of 33Mhz.


PCMCIA -- Stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an organization which developed a standard for expansion slots for small electronics equipment such as laptop computers and faxes. PCMCIA cards, also called PC cards, are roughly credit-card sized. Manufacturers usually use the 32-bit CardBus format of PC cards to add audio capabilities to laptop computers.


Phantom power -- DC voltage usually between 12 and 48 volts applied to an XLR mic input to power condenser microphones. Often mixers, preamps, and audio interfaces have phantom power built in, but outboard phantom power supplies can be used if phantom power is not available.


Phone plug -- Also known as 1/4" jack. Unbalanced connection using a phone-patching cord connector. The most basic connection in audio.


Playback -- Playing recorded audio to listen for errors, sound, and tonality in preparation for overdubbing, editing, mixing, or mastering.


Plug-in -- A piece of software that can be used within another software application to provide additional capabilities or tools within the host application. For audio, this usually refers to software effects and virtual instruments.


Pop filter -- A device used to help shield sensitive microphones from a sudden burst of sound, usually called a pop. Pop filters are designed to be sonically transparent so as not to interfere with sound waves aimed at the mic. Typically a pop filter is a six-to-eight inch circle of mesh placed one-to-eight inches in front of the mic. Some microphones have an internal pop filter.


Power amp -- A device that increases the power of an audio signal by matching the input to the output of a regulated power supply. In the recording studio, these are used to amplify the output from recorders or a mixer for monitoring.


Power conditioner -- An electronic device that is connected between a wall outlet and electronic equipment providing protection against spikes and surges in power. Typically conditioners also provide some type of noise filtering against electronic signal interference.


RCA -- More correctly called a phono plug, this connection was developed and popularized by the RCA corporation for use with their audio equipment. Most often used in stereo pairs.


Recording channel -- Also referred to as a channel strip. Designed to operate as a single channel from a traditional recording console. A recording channel usually includes a preamp, compression, and EQ. Most include a variety of I/O as well as meters and level controls.


Reverb -- A series of multiple sound reflections which extend the impact of the original sound. In nature, this is caused by a sound that originates within a space enclosed by hard surfaces. Also refers to the electronics equipment developed to replicate this acoustic phenomenon.


S/PDIF -- Abbreviation of Sony Philips Digital Interface Format. Interface for digital audio that uses either optical or coaxial cables for transmission. S/PDIF is based on the AES/EBU standard.


Sampling frequency -- The number of times your audio signal is measured (sampled) per second as it is converted from analog to digital by an A/D converter. Measured in kHz and represented as 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88kHz, 96kHz, etc.


SCSI -- Abbreviation for Small Computer Systems Interface, often pronounced scuzzy. A computer connection standard used to connect a wide variety of peripherals, but typically used for hard drives. SCSI hard drives are much faster than IDE drives with speeds up to 10,000 RPMs but its cost is prohibitive and it is much more complicated to set up and maintain. SCSI has been replaced as an external peripheral connection standard by USB and FireWire.


Send -- An output on a mixer operating by a control on the channel which sends that channel's audio to wherever the send is routed. Sends can be used for routing audio to external signal processors and usually include a return input as well so that the audio can be returned to the mixer.


Sequencer -- A piece of hardware or a software program that can record and playback MIDI data. Most sequencers also offer editing controls and output their tracks to a sound module or storage medium. Occasionally the term is incorrectly used to describe an audio multitrack program with MIDI capabilities.


Signal processor -- Generic term which loosely groups components such as compressors, limiters, EQ, microphone preamps, noise gates, reverbs, chorus, delays, modulation, filters, and enhancers/exciters. All are used in audio to process sound in order to achieve a desirable effect.


Simultaneous track record -- The ability of a multitracker to record more than one channel at a time. Usually expressed as four-track simultaneous record; two-track simultaneous record; etc.


Software effect -- Simply, a software version of a hardware effect. See effects processor.


Sound module -- A piece of hardware that applies tones to MIDI data for audio playback and musical performance. Sound modules cannot be played or used unless connected to a MIDI controller, sequencer, or similar input device.


Soundcard -- A PCI or PCMCIA audio interface for a computer that enables it to import and export audio. Usually soundcards offer a variety of I/O with high-quality units providing a breakout box and DSP processing.


Standalone multitrack recorder -- A multitrack that has all necessary features for the typical recording setup: I/O, mixer, recording section, effects, mastering, and CD drive or computer output. Not computer based.


Stereo -- Two channels of audio, usually designated as left and right.


Storage device -- A term that loosely groups together hard drives, tapes, flash memory, CDs, DVDs, and external hard drives all as non-volatile memory for data.


Studio foam -- The same as acoustic foam. Foam used in a recording studio or similar audio-intensive space to reshape the natural acoustics of the room to be better suited for recording and critical listening. Can also be used to dampen loud noises.


Surround sound -- Multichannel audio system that creates a 3D sound stage. Developed by Dolby Labs, surround sound typically includes 5.1 channels, meaning a center channel; l/r front channels; l/r rear channels; and a subwoofer. A second configuration, 7.1 includes an additional set of surround speakers for a more immersive audio field.


THD -- Total Harmonic Distortion. Nearly all components distort the audio signal that passes through its circuitry to a greater or lesser degree. The measurement of this distortion is usually represented as a decimal percentage of the signal; i.e. -- <0.03%. The closer the percentage is to zero, the more transparent the sound.


Tone generator -- See sound module.


Track -- As an audio term it has three main meanings. Can be used to describe a completed audio recording, a single channel of that audio recording, or as a synonym for the word "record" as a verb. Context offers the best indicator.


Track count -- Usually refers to the number of audio channels a multitrack recorder is capable of recording without bouncing any tracks.


Track playback -- The number of tracks a unit can play back simultaneously.


Tracking -- A popular synonym for the word recording.


TRS -- Stands for Tip, Ring, Sleeve. TRS is a balanced circuit that uses a phone plug-style connection with three conductors (the tip, the ring, and the sleeve) instead of just two (the tip and the sleeve).


Unbalanced -- An audio circuit whose two conductors are unequal at ground, usually because one conductor operates as a ground. An unbalanced audio circuit is more susceptible to noise problems than balanced circuits. Noise can be combatted by keeping lines as short as possible.


USB -- Stands for Universal Serial Bus. A protocol for data transfer between digital devices with standardized hardware connections. USB can be used to connect an audio peripheral to a computer for digital audio purposes. USB is a plug-and-play connection, meaning it usually requires only a USB port and driver software to be used. USB can be used for either MIDI or audio data, but latency can be an issue with audio use, especially with older computers. USB devices are usually only stable in supporting two channels of I/O.


USB 2.0 -- A faster version of USB capable of handling more data.


Virtual instrument -- A software program written to emulate the behavior and performance of a piece of musical equipment using sequencing, synthesis, and sampling technologies.


Virtual tracks -- On a digital multitrack recorder, this term refers to tracks that are part of a recording project but are temporarily removed from the workflow to allow other tracks to be edited or recorded.


Word clock -- A standard for synchronizing digital audio data where a device regulates the timing of bit-rate transfer between two digital audio devices. Like any computer data, digital audio is expressed in bits, which are grouped into words.


XLR -- Balanced, circular three-pin connector typically used for microphone and line-level signals. Each pin is a separate channel, but pin 1 is always ground. The connection was developed by Cannon and is sometimes called a Cannon connector.